Pathogenic Synergy in Coinfections

Stimulation by ProVent ECL can ready innate immunity to fight infections in the respiratory tract
(as published in American Society for Microbiology referenced below)

Included below are the following:

(1) A research paper published by the American Society for Microbiology, Infection and Immunity, that details a study on how ProVent ECL disrupted the pathogenic synergy in a coinfection challenge. There is a link to the published research paper and a video of the team who conducted the study summarizing the trial design and outcomes. View the research paper.

(2) An article published by the National Hog Farmer that outlines additional findings related to coinfections. There is also a video interview and podcast summarizing these findings. View the case study summary.


“Bacillus-Based Direct-Fed Microbial Reduces the Pathogenic Synergy of a Coinfection with Salmonella enterica Serovar Choleraesuis and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus”


Viral respiratory infections predispose lungs to bacterial coinfections causing a worse outcome than either infection alone. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes pneumonia in pigs and is often associated with bacterial coinfections. We examined the impact of providing weanling pigs a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on the syndrome resulting from infection with either Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis alone, or in combination with PRRSV. Nine days after the bacterial challenge, Salmonella was isolated from ileocecal lymph nodes of all challenged pigs regardless of DFM treatment. Compared to the single bacterial challenge, the dual challenge with Salmonella and PRRSV resulted in a pathogenic synergy exhibited by a higher rate of Salmonella colonization in the lung and a more extensive and severe interstitial pneumonia. Provision of DFM to dually challenged pigs reduced the rate of lung colonization by Salmonella, eliminated or reduced the presence of PRRSV in the lung, and reduced the extent and severity of gross lung pathology. Dually challenged pigs that received DFM had increased concentrations of interleukin 1 (IL-1) and IL-8 in lung lavage fluids, accompanied by increased expression in their blood cells of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptor 2 (NOD2) and triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) molecules. These changes in pulmonary inflammatory cytokine production and increased expression of NOD2 and TREM-1 suggest that the DFM exerted a systemic modulating effect on innate immunity. These observations are consistent with the notion that tonic stimulation by gut-derived microbial products can poise innate immunity to fight infections in the respiratory tract.


Watch the video below to hear discussions from Federico A. Zuckermann, DVM, PhD, Professor of Immunology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Kyle Leistikow, MS, Group Leader – Research & Development, Microbial Discovery Group, Beth Galbraith, MS, Research Manager – Animal Health, Microbial Discovery Group and Kerry Keffaber, DVM, Senior VP of Research & Development, United Animal Health.

Download the RESEARCH PAPER >

While this study shows feeding a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial improved intestinal integrity, United Animal Health, Inc. makes no claim that feeding ProVent ECL is an intervention for the prevention or treatment of diseases, including disease associated with PRRS or Salmonellosis.


“New tools for scour diagnosis and control… 
But don’t forget sanitation is king!”


  • A combination of both accurate diagnostics and farm procedures is essential to identify solutions to piglet scours and pre-wean mortalities (PWM).
  • Diagnostics are key to finding what multiple pathogens may be contributing to an issue.
  • A study conducted at a Midwest sow farm showed periodic rotavirus outbreaks that resulted in a high scour rate and elevated PWM. Vaccines and improved sanitation protocol resulted in only short-term improvements.
  • Using a multi-factorial approach, the farm implemented interventions to address both the virus, plus the accompanying bacterial pathogens identified by using PathKinex rectal swabs.
  • Rotavirus C was elevated, but the PathKinex diagnostics revealed E. coli was also present, suggesting that intestinal bacteria were contributing to the problem.
  • Therefore, the farm implemented several interventions, including the use of direct-fed microbials, ProVent ECL, to improve immunity against the active virus. They also enforced SOPs for sanitation.
  • After these interventions were put in place, piglet scours and PWM were reduced and maintained for approximately one year.
  • Using a multi-factorial approach to improve both immunity and the microbiota resulted in a longer period of improved PWM that previous attempts where a singular intervention was employed.

Listen the Summary Podcast (3 MINUTES)


Download the Full Article >

The above views and opinions expressed are solely the author’s.

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